Nuclear crisis due to explosion of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant after the biggest earthquake in Japan caused panic to the world community, especially some countries that are geographically close to Japan.
Leakage of nuclear reactors are the most feared impact behind the benefits of nuclear energy for humans. In recorded history there are events in the world’s largest nuclear accidents include accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, American, and last in Fukushima Japan.
Nuclear leakage occurs when a nuclear power plant system or component failure causes the reactor core can not be controlled and cooled so that a protected nuclear fuel containing uranium or plutonium and radioactive fission products begin to heat up and leak. A leak is considered very serious because of the possibility that the containment of the reactor began to fail, releasing radioactive and toxic elements into the atmosphere and environment. From the standpoint of development, a leak can cause severe damage to the reactor, and the possibility of total destruction.
Some nuclear leakage has occurred, from core damage to total destruction of the reactor core. In some cases this requires major repair or closure of nuclear reactors. A nuclear explosion is not the result of nuclear leakage because, by design, geometry and composition of the reactor core does not allow special conditions allowing for a nuclear explosion. However, conditions that cause leakage can cause non-nuclear explosion. For example, some accidents can cause the cooling power of high pressure, causing a steam explosion.
Impact of Radiation Distribution
Radiation is reported to have reached Tokyo, but do not endanger human health. Tokyo Metropolitan Government officials said radiation levels that exceeded the normal limit occurred in Tokyo. Tokyo Government thought it was already at the level that is harmful to human body.
Nuclear power plant is located 250 kilometers northeast of Tokyo. Kyodo News Agency also reported that radiation levels in the city of Maebashi, 100 kilometers north of Tokyo, rose 10-fold above normal limits.
As known, the outgoing radiation from nuclear plants damaged by the tsunami continues to rise dramatically. This forced the Japanese government urged its citizens to stay indoors to avoid exposure to radiation.
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan declared the radiation had spread from four nuclear power reactors Fukushima Dai-Ichi. Fukushima is the region worst affected by the earthquake and tsunami on Friday, March 11 last. Seems very high radiation levels and there is great risk of radiation spread more widely, “Kan said as quoted by the Associated Press.
In the zone of nuclear power plants really had an increase in radioactivity, on Saturday amounted to 1800 mSv, Monday to 800 mSv, and then rose again to be 1900 mSv in the explosion Tuesday morning. But until now the Japanese government has not expanded the evacuation zone 30 kilometers, “he said.
This accident has the effect of short-term and long term are harmful to humans. Health impacts, economic, social and psychological can happen to people affected.
Actually the human body defense mechanism to protect themselves from cell damage from radiation and other harmful chemicals. But at a certain amount of radiation can not be tolerated by the body’s defense mechanism. Ionization process in the cells of the body because the radiation can damage cells and organs of the body that cause various manifestations.
Severity of the health effects of nuclear radiation depends on several factors. These factors include the number of cumulative radiation exposure, the distance to the source of radiation and duration of exposure to radiation.
High radiation can directly trigger a direct impact moment can be known, while radiation can trigger unconscious long-term effects are usually even more dangerous.
Impact shortly or immediately after exposure to high radiation exposure in the vicinity of nuclear reactors, among others, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever.
Momentary or short-term impact due to high radiation in the vicinity of nuclear reactors, among others, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and fever.
While the medium-term impact or a few days after exposure are dizziness, eye dizzy. Determine the direction of disorientation or confusion, weakness, fatigue and seemed lethargic, vomiting blood or blood stools, hair loss and baldness, low blood pressure, blood vessel disorders and wounds difficult to heal.
Long-term effects of nuclear radiation is generally in fact triggered by low levels of radiation that is not realized and are not anticipated until the years.
The general public, according to international regulations, it should not be exposed to radiation exceeds the average 1 mSv per year, meanwhile, workers in radiation areas specified must not receive more than 50mSv per year.
Radiation dose is very high, amounting to 100 thousand mSv will kill instantly. While 10 thousand mSv dose may also be killed, but after a few days or weeks, at doses of 3000-4000 mSv, it is likely to survive about 50 percent. These high doses can damage the intestines that causes vomiting and diarrhea or bone marrow damage that weakens the red blood cell production.
Lower doses, eg 2000 mSv rarely cause immediate danger to human life, but symptoms of radiation sickness can be felt as fatigue, vomiting and poor appetite for several days or weeks, sometimes accompanied by hair loss, but do not leave permanent injuries. While the dose of 1000 mSv would cause the symptoms temporarily, but there is no immediate risk to health.
Some health effects due to long-term exposure to nuclear radiation such as cancer, especially thyroid cancer, genetic mutation, premature aging and disorders of the nervous and reproductive systems.
Impact of long-term health problems mainly occur in particular cancer.
The worst nuclear reactor meltdowns in history occurred in Chernobyl, Ukraine in April 1986. Radiation explosion went off and telontar 1500 meters into the air, which makes radiation exposure far into Europe. Besides triggering the evacuation of thousands of citizens from around the scene, the health effects are still felt the victims until many years later such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and even death. Even today the area is left without inhabitant.
About 60% of children experienced Ukrainian thyroid cancer, 10% of children experiencing mental disorders, many children have a genetic disorder. Sebagia large Ukrainian child is alleged to have abnormal body’s defense after the incident. Even some animals have a genetic disorder.
In the year 1990 – 1998, found an increase in thyroid cancer cases as many as 1791 cases in children of Ukraine, who lived in the area around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Experts have linked all these thyroid cancer by the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
Kemeny Commission Report mentions the Three Mile Island accident found no potential cause of cancer or cases that may arise will be very small so it is not possible to detect it. The same conclusion on other potential health problems
When a nuclear reactor has been declared a leak should be managed in line with the scale of the accident according to international standards.
All communities within a certain range should be immediately evacuated from the risk of such exposure. For all those who have been in the area of exposure should be done immediately skrening tests of radiation contamination in their bodies. If there are people who contaminated should be isolated and carried out maintenance and monitoring his health.
All the people in disaster exposure nukklir reactor leak while not yet evacuated should stay indoors and not allowed to turn on the AC to prevent contamination by outside air. Citizens are also forbidden to consume vegetables, fruit-Buan or foodstuffs that have been contaminated with outside air.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Atomic Energy Board of Supervisors, has not issued a specific warning to neighboring countries with Japan about the dangers of radiation, because so far can still be handled properly.